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©2018 Valle Della Luna Ecology. Created by Shrubfrog

EUNIS 5320: Low Formations of Euphorbia Close to Cliffs

COASTAL  ELICRISO GARIGA

Habitat Profile Contents:

1. DESCRIPTION

2. FLORAE (Botanical)

3. FAUNAE (Noted Creatures)

4. ECOSYSTEM ELEMENTS

5. HABITAT MANAGEMENT

6. SURVEY INFORMATION 

 

                                                        DESCRIPTION

HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS:

Specific to the Thermo-Mediterranean, Pluvi-seasonal Oceanic Bioclimate. Sub-halophyte vegetation in  communities with low formations of Helichrysum-Jacobaea-Euphorbia-Camphrosoma-Daucus (see primary plant species), as a dominance of sub-shrubs & herbaceous species adapted to high wind exposure. Forming a transitional band between rocky areas more directly exposed to the action of the sea colonised by communities of Crithmum-Limonium  and the formation of Thermo-Mediterranean Macchia on vegetated cliffs. Geographical distribution of this habitat is predominantly Tyrrhenian with exact plant community composition characterised by different species belonging to the Western Mediterranean.  

    The significant difference in habitat composition within the Valle Della Luna are stands of the endangered Jacobaea maritima ssp. Gibbosa (Red List Italy; EN) & Allium commutatum (Red List Mediterranean; LC), formed together with endemic Helichrysum italicum ssp. Tyrrhenicum, Limonium merxmuelleri ssp. Sulcitanum & Silene rosulata ssp. Sanctae-therasiae. An important observed ecosystem association between the endemic Graphosoma  italicum ssp. Sardiniensis (Sardinian Striped Shieldbug) and Daucus carota (Sea Carrot), where mating occurs, is present in SA1: Valle 3b.

VALLE HABITAT LOCATIONS:

SA1 (Study Area 1): Valle 3b - set back from the sea about 20-25m, up from the beach at the base of the valle extending up both sides of the canyon & to the 3rd/7th valli apex, where it merges with Vegetated Sea-cliffs, the occasional small pocket of Holm-oak Woodland & Arborescent Juniperus Macchia. An underground/rock water track runs through Valle 3b to the sea, bordered by Junco grasses. 

SA2 (Study Area 2): Valle 5b (mosaic with grassland) - adjoining Brachypodietalia Coastal Grassland in a mosaic habitat, meeting with Vegetated Sea-cliffs & Thermo-Mediterranean Macchia.

SA1Valle 5b (mosaic)

SA2: Valle 3b

MICROCLIMATIC VARIABLES:

SA1: Exposed, North-West facing, directly against the strong prevailing wind (Mistral). Partial Shade. SA2: Exposed. Full Sun.

 

SUBSTRATE COMPOSITION:

SA1: Granite rocks with with pockets of soil in places. Sandy-loam; low in organic matter with high sand content. pH 7.2, particle-size 0.001-45mm approx. Low availability of nutrients. SA2: Fixed Dune Grassland. Sandy-loam; medium organic matter content. pH 7.2, particle size 0.001-20mm appox. Relatively low availability of nutrients.

 

                                                FLORAE (Botanical)

PLANT ADAPTATIONS

Xerophytic, Sub-halophytic, Halophytic, Chasmophytic, Lithophytic, Phreatophytic, Heliophytic, Geophytic.

CHARACTERISTICS:

Primarily Subshrub-Herbaceous spread.

PRIMARY SPECIES:

Camphorosma monspeliaca (Camphorfume), Crithmum maritimum (Sea Fennel), Daucus carota (Sea Carrot), Euphorbia pitythusa (Hedgehog Spurge), Helichrysum italicum ssp. Tyrhennicum (Elicriso), Jocobaea maritima ssp. Gibbosa (Silver Ragwort), Lotus creticus (Ginestrino). 

SECONDARY SPECIES:

Allium commutatum (Sea Garlic) Anthemis maritima (Sea Chamomile), Juncus acutus ssp. acutus (Junco), Juniperus phoenicea (Ginepro), Limonium merxmuelleri ssp. Sulcitanum (Sea-Lavender), Lobularia maritima (Sweet Alyssum), Pistachia lentiscus (Lentisco), Brachypodietalia Grasses. 

TERTIARY SPECIES:

Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima (Bietola Selvatico), Erodium corsicum (Erba de Agullas), Parietaria judaica (Pigulosa), Silene rosulata ssp. Sanctae-therasiae (Silene di Santa Teresa), Smilax aspera (Sarsaparilla), Solanum lycopersicum (Wild Tomato).

ENDEMIC SPECIES:

Erodium corsicum (Erba de Agullas), Helichrysum italicum ssp. Tyrhennicum (Elicriso), Limonium merxmeulleri ssp. Sulcitanum (Sea-Lavender), Silene rosulata ssp. Sancta,e-therasiae (Silene di Santa Teresa).

PROTECTED SPECIES:

Allium commutatum (Red List Mediterranean; LC), Jacobaea maritima ssp. Gibbosa (Red List Italy; EN).

INVASIVE SPECIES:

None recorded. Although the habitat is open to rapid spread of Caprobrotus spp. & other Aizoocies/Mesambryanthemacies as a threat.

                                                         FAUNAE (Noted Creatures)

INVERTEBRATES:

Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Graphosoma italicum ssp. Sadiniensis (Sardinian Striped Shieldbug), Pyrrhocoris apterus (Carabiniera Bug). Coleoptera; Chlorophytus sartor (Round-necked Longhorn Beetle). Hymenoptera; Apis mellifera (European Honey Bee), Bombus lucorum (White-tailed Bumble Bee), Bombus terrestris (Buff-tailed Bumble Bee), Solitary Bee Unknown, Wasp Unknown, Ants Unknown. Diptera: multiple Unknown Flies & Hoverflies (Diptera). Lepidoptera; Macroglossum stellatarum (Hummingbird Hawk Moth), Coenonympha corinna (Corsican Heath), Goneptyrx cleopatra (Cleopatra), Odonata: Unknown Dragonflies (Odonata). Araneae: Unknown small red/black Spider possibly Entelegynae, Unknown large brown/orange spider.

REPTILES:

Podarcis tiliguerta ssp. tiliguerta (Tyrrhenian Lizard).

MAMMALS:

Rattus norvegicus (Norweigan Brown Rat).

BIRDS:

Corvus corax (Imperial Crow), Columba palumbus (Wood Pigeon) or Columba Livia (Wild Pigeon).

ENDEMIC SPECIES

Graphosoma italicum ssp. Sadiniensis, Podarcis tiliguerta ssp. tiliguerta.

PROTECTED SPECIES: TBA

INVASIVE SPECIES: None Recorded.

                                                                   ECOSYSTEM ELEMENTS

Biotic & Abiotic interactions between species and physical elements shall be drawn together, after observations to create a picture of how this specific Ecosystem functions. This will be supported by Soundscape recordings to depict change in Biodiversity levels over time.

Focal research on populations will take place where possible for species of special importance or significance where possible.

ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS:

 

The following observed interactions between species will be utilised for construction of a localised Ecosystem Food-Web Diagram. Icons are used in each Association Identification Item to depict:

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Very Reliable Observation; Complete Identifications.

Very Reliable Observation: Incomplete Identifications. 

Reliable Observation; Complete Identifications.

Reliable Observation; Incomplete Identifications.

Unreliable Observation: Complete Identifications.

Unreliable Observation: Incomplete Identifications.

Ecosystem Importance Ranking:

High Value

Medium Value

Low Value or Un-Evaluated

5320-1a; Sardinian Striped Shieldbug & Sea Carrot Habitat Association.

Organism 1:

Graphosoma italicum ssp. Sardiniensis  (Sardinian Striped Shieldbug) - Pentatomidae; Hemiptera; Heteroptera.

Endemic NW Sardinia / Not Evaluated.   

Organism 2:           

Daucus carota; most likely; ssp. Hispanicus (Sea Carrot) - Apiaceae.

Widespread in Mediterranean Coastlines / Not Protected.

INTERACTIONS:

The Sea Carrot acts as the primary food plant from which Graphosma sucks plant juices.

Specimens can be found in groups or pairs mating on flower/seed heads during Summer months.

Observations:

June-July 2018.                High Ecosystem Importance Value: Host plant as multiple-use habitat resource.

5320-2a; Sea Garlic as a Nectar/Pollen Resource.

Organism 1:

Allium commutatum  (Sea Garlic) - Alliaceae.

Stable Population throughout Mediteranean / Red List Mediterranean - LC.   

Organism 2:           

Apis mellifera (European Honey Bee) - Apidae.

Widespread / Not Protected.

Organism 3:

Bombus terrestris ssp. Sassaricus (Buff-tailed Bumble Bee) - Apidae.

Endemic Sardinian Sub-species / Red List European - LC.

Organisms 4-9:

Unknown Hoverflies/Flies - Diptera.

*Note: multiple sightings, sipping nectar. Large diversity of Hoverflies.

Organism 10:

Unknown Spider - Araneae

*Behavioural note: On flower, preying on visiting insects.

 

 

INTERACTIONS: Primarily as a Nectar resource in Aestival (June/July).

Observations:

June-July 2018.                High Ecosystem Importance Value: Host plant as multiple-use habitat resource.