Reptiles & Amphibians

The species listed are those included from the EUNIS & Natura 2000 factsheets together with evidence gathered from direct observations in the field. A profile is provided for each of the species listed. Updated February 2020. Relevant IUCN Red List designations include, LC = Least Concern. & NT = Near Threatened. tbc = to be confirmed (previously identified by survey).

 

1. Algyroides fitzingeri (Pygmy Algyroides)

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Lacertidae - Algyroides - A.fitzingeri.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Tyrrhenian algiroid, Pygmy algyroides, Fitzinger's algyroides, Pygmy Keeled Lizard, Notophilus fitzingeri, Lacerta fitzingeri, Algiroides fitzingeri, Algyroides fitzingeri.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Least Concern (LC), Endemic to Sardinia & Corsica. Relatively widespread in Sardinia but threatened in Corsica due to fires and the reduction of its habitat.

HABITAT: Macchia, Gariga, rocky areas, grassland, forests, pastureland. It prefers rocky environments from sea-level up to 1500m in altitude. Dry-stone walls, ruins, pastures rich in rocky outcrops & rocky environments near water courses & with abundant shrub vegetation.

DIET: Insects & other Invertebrates.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: Said to be maybe the smallest lizard in the world ( Boulenger, 1920: 342), it's slower and less agile than the  other lizards. Being a diurnal animal, it is mostly active during the first half of the day. Being very sensible to temperature changes, its hibernation is quite long, from September to April. 

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey, see the Natura 2000 Dataform. NO FIELD OBSERVATION.

POPULATION: Not available.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

2. Archeolacerta bedriagae (Bedriaga's Rock Lizard)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Lacertidae - Archaeolacerta - A.bedriagae - A.bedriagae 'sardus'

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Bedriaga's Rock Lizard, 

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Near Threatened (NT), Endemic to Sardinia (ssp. sardus) & Corsica.

HABITAT: Macchia, Gariga, rocky areas, grassland, forests, rivers, pastureland, rural gardens. 

DIET: Insects & other small Invertebrates. Unusually, they jump off the ground to catch flying Insects .

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: They can climb up vertical rocks, cliffs, walls and ruins.  They are also good swimmers, and can be observed  basking close to coastal rivers, they may try to escape by water if frightened.

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey, see the Natura 2000 Dataform. Field Observations: Small population in the top-end of Valle 3B, where it merges with 7th Valle, looking NW down towards the sea (Maestrale direction). Sighting also in 8th Valle on rocks. In both locations there are south/west facing rocks, & a nearby source of spring/ground water.

POPULATION: Small populations observed in 2 locations. See maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                       View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):

 

Bedriaga Map2.png
 

2. Bufo viridis (European Green Toad)

 

 

 

TAXONOMY: Amphibia - Anura - Bufonidae - Bufo - B.balearicus.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Balearic Green Toad, Bufo balearicus, Bufotes balearicus. 

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Least Concern (LC).

HABITAT: Wide-ranging, across various temperature zones. Forests, Forest/Grassland, Macchia, Gariga, Semi-Deserts  & Deserts. More tolerant to dry conditions than many other amphibians. It inhabits both wet swampy areas & dry deserts of different types. In Forests they tend to inhabit open areas and Macchia/Gariga often far away from a body of water, in the drier southern parts of their range in they tend to live closer to water (lakeshores, irrigation ditches & oases). Spawning can occur in both fresh or saline water in a diverse range of waterbodies, usually no deeper than 0.5m, including ponds, swamps, lakes, stream & river-pools, resevoirs, ditches & puddles. 

DIET: A variety of Invertebrates, mainly Crickets, Meal Worms, small Butterflies, Earthworms, Moths, Beetles, Caterpillars. There has also been a reported attack on a Bat.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: To be added.

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey, see the Natura 2000 Dataform. Field Observations: In cave habitats & dense, shady vegetation near to water streams/puddles in Vernal (3rd Valle & 1st Valle/Uga Basin).

POPULATION: Assumed potentially healthy due to the number of potential cave habitats not surveyed. See maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                             View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):

4. Chalcides ocellatus (Ocellated Skink)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Scincidae - Chalcides - C.ocellatus.
COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Ocellated Skink, Gongilo, Eyed Skink.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Near Threatened (NT).

HABITAT:  Found in a variety of habitats, Open Forest, Macchia, Gariga, Coastal Scub, rural farms & gardens.  

DIET: Various insects & arachnids, small lizards & even its own young. In captivity fruit, vegetable, eggs & meat.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: They use open ground for basking & dense vegetation, rocks or woody debris for cover.

OBSERVATIONS: Multiple direct observations in coastal Macchia/Gariga  during Aestival 2018 (SLG1-TSG2). Also through Vernal, Aestival, Serotinal, Autumnal 2019 in different locations, attracted by food preparation areas beneath stones & logs at the edge of Macchia/Gariga (3rd Valle). 

POPULATION: Relatively unknown, only observed as singular specimens in 2 locations, close to humans. See maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                        View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):

5. Discoglossus sardus (Tyrrhenian Painted Frog)

 

TAXONOMY: Amphibia - Anura - Alytidae - Discoglossus - D.sardus.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Tyrrhenian Painted Frog.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Least Concern (LC). 

HABITAT: Endemic to Sardinia, Corsica & other Tyrrhenic islands & Tuscany. Its habitats are forest streams, Macchia, Gariga, coastal plains, marshes & rivers. Slow streams are used for breeding and it can tolerate slightly salty water.

DIET: Small invertebrates.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: To be added.

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey, see the Natura 2000 Dataform. Field observations during Vernal 2019 close to underground water sources & seasonal streams close to dense vegetation (Valle 3a & 1st Valle). Also in the Fountain drinking water (Funtana di la Turri) & a saline spring pool close to the beach (Valle 3b).

POPULATION: Assumed healthy, due to number of potential habitats not surveyed & numbers. See maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.                                              

                                                                                                                    View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):

6. Emys orbicularis (European Pond Turtle)

 

To Be Certified

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by a previous Survey (2014) undertaken by the Comune de Santa di Teresa Gallura, although no other local records/observations up to  October 2019, and deemed unlikely to be recorded. Not listed on the Natura 2000 Dataform.

7. Euleptes europaea (European Leaf-toed Ghecko)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Sphaerodactylidae - Euleptes - E. europaea. 

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: European leaf-toed gecko.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Near-Threatened (NT).

HABITAT: Rocks, walls, boulders and crags, especially on granite, ruins and occasionally the trunks of trees. It is usually found at low levels but in warmer conditions may be found up to an altitude of about 1,500 metres (4,900 ft). It inhabits Sardinia, Corsica and other Mediterranean islands, certain locations in Tuscany and the southern coastal areas of France.

DIET: Insects and other small invertebrates.

LIFECYCLE: Between two and three years they reach maturity, and can live up to twenty years.

BEHAVIOUR: This gecko is agile and a very good jumper; often stalks its preys approaching them slowly and then taking a final leap. It's a mainly nocturnal animal, and during daytime it basks in the sun, camouflaging itself on top of the rocks or inside cracks (at sometimes very high animal densities). They hibernate during winter and start the mating rituals in spring, that normally end up with the layering of two eggs inside a rock's crack, that will hatch in two to three months. 

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey. Field observed rarely on interior cave surfaces & the shady side of large rocks, deep in the Teschio Holm-Oak Forest & the caves in Cala Grande (3rd Valle) during 2017-19.

POPULATION: Unknown, only rarely sighted, possibly due to nocturnal habits & camouflage on granite rocks. See maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                     View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):

8. Hierophis viridiflavus (Green Whip Snake)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Colubridae - Hierophis - H. viridiflavus/H.viridiflavus carbonarius.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Green whip snake, western whip snake. 

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Least Concern (LC).

HABITAT: Temperate forests, temperate shrubland, Mediterranean shrubland, Artificial/Terrestrial.

DIET: Lizards, skinks, frogs, mice, eggs and small birds.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: It is a mostly diurnal species that hibernates during the winter. This snake is a very agile and fast climber and swimmer. If attacked, its first reaction would be a very fast escape towards a safe refuge, if unable do it, it doesn't hesitate to bite numerous times. Its bite is not venomous, but there is a reported case of a sustained 5-minutes bite that produced suspect syntoms and neuromotor problems to the subject. 

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey. Relatively abundant near dense Macchia/Gariga vegetation. A large population recorded in undisturbed dry grassland in Capo Testa (GRS11 Campo del Serpente) 2018/9.

POPULATION: Healthy populations, observed in many locations with prey species abundant. See maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                      View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):

9. Hyla Sarda (Sardinian Tree-Frog)

 

TAXONOMY: Amphibia - Anura - Hylidae - Hyla - H.sarda.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Sardinian tree frog.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Least Concern (LC).

HABITAT: Endemic to Sardinia, Corsica and the Tuscan islands. It inhabits forests, wetlands (inland), shrublands, artificial/terrestrial.

DIET: Insects.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: To be added.

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey. Field observation in 1 location as a single specimen in the Teschio Holm-Oak Forest 2019.

POPULATION: Unknown. See Maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                     View 'Population Maps' (click map icon): 

10. Podarcis siculus (Italian Wall-Lizard)

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Lacertidaes - Podarcis - P.siculus.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Italian Wall Lizard.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Least Concern (LC).

HABITAT: Rocky areas, Forest, Grassland, Shrubland, Artificial/Terrestrial.

DIET: Invertebrates, occasionally ripe fruits and young lizards of the same species.

LIFECYCLE: They normally live around ten years.

BEHAVIOUR: It's a diurnal animal. It is able to swim, though it avoids water. At the sight of a danger, they normally quickly escape, in the human-inhabited areas they become more trusting. If captured, it can recur to the autotomy (self-amputation) and loose its tail. Males are territorial and usual to fight between each other.

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey. Occasional sightings in a few locations in Capo Testa 2018/9, although significantly less common than Podarcis tiliguerta.

POPULATION: Small & occasional. Primarily in a single area that exhibits Podarcis siculus f. melanica (only location the melanic form has been found) & Podarcis tiliguerta as well (Valle Star Wars - 3b, on rocks). See Maps.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                  View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):

11. Podarcis siculus f.melanica (Black Italian Wall-Lizard)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Lacertidae - Lacertidaes - Podarcis - P.siculus - P.siculus f.melanica.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Black Italian Wall Lizard 

CONSERVATION STATUS: Unknown 

HABITAT: Presumed similar to P.siculus.

DIET: Presumed similar to P.siculus.

LIFECYCLE: Presumed similar to P.siculus.

BEHAVIOUR: Presumed similar to P.siculus.

OBSERVATIONS: Recorded by field-observation in only 1 location where Podarcis tiliguerta is abundant, and occasional populations of Podarcis siculus occur also (Valle Star Wars - 3b), basking on granite rocks.

POPULATION: Very small. See Maps .                            

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.                          View 'Population Maps' (click map icon): 

 

Further genetic research required to define taxonomy.     

Links relevant to melanism in Podarcis spp. https://www.biotaxa.org/hn/article/download/24131/24375

https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=https://www.meditflora.com/fauna/medit_fauna/rettili_anfibi/podarcis_sicula_melanica.htm&prev=search

12. Podarcis tiliguerta (Tyrrhenian Wall-Lizard)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Lacertidae - Podarcis - P. tiliguerta.

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Tyrrhenian Wall Lizard.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN Least Concern (LC).

HABITAT: Endemic to Sardinia and Corsica. It inhabits Shrubland, Artificial/Terrestrial, Rocky Areas, Grassland.

DIET: Insects and other arthropodes, oc.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: To be added.

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey. The most common Lizard species can be observed all around Capo Testa, especially on or near rocks in sun-busking position during the daytime, catching insects or involved in territorial scuffles. Observed more frequently in the Valle Della Luna research area rather than Capo Testa as a whole.

POPULATION: Healthy, abundant populations throughout the SAC.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                    View 'Population Maps' (click map icon): 

13. Tarentola mauritanica (Moorish Ghecko)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Squamata - Phyllodactylidae - Tarentola - T.mauritanica

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Moorish Ghecko, Crocodile Ghecko, Common Wall-Ghecko, Salamanquesa.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN - Least Concern (LC).

HABITAT: Preference to dry, rocky areas, especially large rocks & cliff-faces. Commonly observed close to human settlements in warm coastal & inland urban areas, particularly on stone-walls, ruins, rocky grassland & tree-trunks. Native to the Western Mediterranean region from Portugal to Greece & North-Africa. The adoption of this species as a pet has led to wide introductions elsewhere (America & Asia), with established breeding populations reported in California

DIET: Mainly Insects. Although in captivity they are not picky-eaters 'eating anything that moves'. Where introduced they may impact on native fauna, preying on frogs & smaller lizards.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: Primarily nocturnal, also crepuscular (active during twilight), but can be observed during the day especially at the end of winter & on sunny days (basking on rocks close to their refuge).

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey. NO FIELD OBSERVATION.

POPULATION: Not available.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                   View 'Population Maps' (click map icon): 

14. Testudo marginata (Marginated Tortoise)

 

TAXONOMY: Reptilia - Testudines - Testudinidae - Testudo - T.marginata - T.m. sarda

COMMON NAME/S & SYNONYMS: Marginated Tortoise, Sardinian Marginated Tortoise.

CONSERVATION STATUS: IUCN - Least Concern (LC), although protected under CITES Appendix 1, prohibiting commercial trade. *Notes - no specific IUCN  category to cover T.m. sarda subspecies.

HABITAT: Dry-scrub (Macchia, Gariga & woodland) with dense vegetation cover & rocky hillsides in northern Sardinia (T.m. sarda). Testudo marginata is more adapted to mountainous regions than other wild Tortoises. 

DIET: Herbivorous, consisting mainly of native herbaceous wildflowers & grasses, some fruits. Low protein, high fibre & calcium rich. *Notes - Oxalic acid is harmful as part of their diet, so special attention should be paid to the invasive herbacous wildflower Oxalis pes-caprae & it's spread relative to populations. Feeding of fruits by tourists could also be detrimental as this leads to increased likelihood of intestinal parasites.

LIFECYCLE: To be added.

BEHAVIOUR: They tend to be calm & relaxed, although can be somewhat territorial. They have a controlled temper & are slow to anger. Early in the mornings they bask in the sun (assisted by the darker colour of carapace to absorb more heat, hence helping to regulate body temperature), then search for food. After feeding they return to their shelters in the hot midday hours. Leaving again then in the late afternoon. Younger tortoises spend more time hidden to reduce the likelihood of overheating. Males are loud during mating season and can be observed mounting females in areas of open ground close to dense vegetation.

OBSERVATIONS: As recorded by previous EUNIS Survey. Common field observations, although the main population is centred around the fountain water source where the majority of breeding takes place (Uga Basin) & surrounding areas, with single sightings occurring into the 1st Valle toward the sea, where they feed on dune grassland vegetation (primarily Matthiola tricuspidata, other wildfowers & grasses). Males also observed in the 5th Valle (Valle Uga Uga) on dune grassland & throughout the dense area of Quercus Ilex Forest in the Teschio woodland migrating towards the 8th Valle, where multiple habitats converge, close to the sea (South-west facing - more early morning sun). See population maps 

POPULATION: Healthy in areas of density, but with a limited range. This may be related to water availability and more to the point ability to scale the terrain (although it is amazing that sightings have been recorded in hard to reach places - it must take a long time to get there). Numerous anthropagenic and invasive species (Oxalis pes-caprae) threats, including dogs - some dogs can either intimidate or attack, although no fatalities observed/recorded.

LOCAL HABITAT ACTION PLAN: To be added.

                                                                                                                  View 'Population Maps' (click map icon):  

15. Testudo graeca (Greek Tortoise)

To Be Certified

 

OBSERVATIONS: Recorded on 'Wildlife Signs' dotted around the SAC. No local records/observations up to  October 2019, and deemed unlikely to be recorded. Not listed on the Natura 2000 Dataform.

Population Maps:

 
 

2. Archeolacerta bedriagae - Bedriaga's Rock Lizard

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

Map A3: Location 2- Also on south & west facing rocks, where Arborescent Macchia (AGM1: Macchia del Gatto Rosso) meets Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC18 Mesa di Spock).

Map A4: Both survey sights Locations1 & 2 displayed. These both exist in areas rarely visited by humans due to landscape topography.

3. Bufo viridis - European Green Toad

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

Map A3: Location 2- Also on south & west facing rocks, where Arborescent Macchia (AGM1: Macchia del Gatto Rosso) meets Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC18 Mesa di Spock).

4. Chalcides ocellatus - Ocellated Skink (Gongilo)

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

5. Discoglossus sardus - Tyrrhenian Painted-Frog

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

Map A3: Location 2- Also on south & west facing rocks, where Arborescent Macchia (AGM1: Macchia del Gatto Rosso) meets Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC18 Mesa di Spock).

6. Hyla sarda - Sardinian Tree-Frog

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

7. Euleptes europaea - European Leaf-toed Ghecko

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

Map A3: Location 2- Also on south & west facing rocks, where Arborescent Macchia (AGM1: Macchia del Gatto Rosso) meets Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC18 Mesa di Spock).

8. Hierophis viridiflavus - Green Whip Snake

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

10. Podarcis sicula - Italian Wall Lizard 

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

11. Podarcis sicula f. melanica - Black Italian Wall Lizard 

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

12. Podarcis tiliguerta - Tyrrhenian Wall Lizard 

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

11. Podarcis sicula f. melanica - Black Italian Wall Lizard 

Map A1: Location 1- a mosaic habitat meeting point of Coastal Elicriso Gariga (CEG1: Low formations of Euphorbia close to rocks), Arborescent Macchia (AGM2: Discesa di Ginepri) & Vegetated Sea Cliffs (VSC1: Deretano di Capo Testa). Only 1 of 2 locations where sightings were recorded during survey across the island in 2019. Population with access to south & west facing rocks, for increased sun exposure.

Map A2: . Rarely observed, on rocks in the sun. An underground water source is likely in this area where Valle 3B & the 7th Valle merge, as can discerned by the presence of clumps ofJuncus acutus (a grass), the occasional Ficus carica (Fig tree) & Quercus ilex (Holm Oak), plus a spring further down in Valle 3B. An area of natural habitat undisturbed by humans apart from the occasional hiker/climber/rambler.

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